Theory of Asynchronous Evolution

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Explanations of known facts

What is the evolutionary purpose of differentiation into female and male sex, right- and left hemispheres of the brain, DNA and proteins, autosomes and sex chromosomes and many others?

All of them are specializations into conservative and operative aspects of evolution.

The dependence of sexual dimorphism on the reproductive structure of the population.

Strict monogamous species use sex differentiation at the organism level, rather than at the population one therefore strict sexual dimorphism for these species it should be minimal.

Molecular biology, genetics and selection

One of the three “sensations” of “Human genome” program: why most mutations are in the Y-chromosome?

Y-chromosome is a gateway for new information.

Jumping genes: where and why do they jump?

Why in birds the only one female X chromosome is condensed?

Why father’s genome imprinting occur two times more frequently?

Asymmetric Y → Х crossing-over?

Autosomal location of “sex” genes: gametes, gonads and genitalia?

Why placenta (female organ) is controlled by male’s genes, while “common” embryo—by female’s genes?

Better selection properties for male sex in agricultural animals and plants?

Dominance of a father on divergent characters and of a mother on convergent ones?

 

Embryology

Right hemisphere control of intrauterine development in humans. [Walker, 1980]

Bigger left side of an embryo? [Klimenko, 1984]

Embryogenesis is an old system

Why embryo sucks the right thumb? [Hepper, 1991]

Sucking reflex is new and therefore is controlled by the left hemisphere

Anatomy

Sexual dimorphism in plants — shape of leaves or branch patterns (there is no struggle for or choice by the female plant)?

“The “reversed” sexual size dimorphism of predatory birds, bats, rabbits, flying squirrels, spotted hyenas, dwarf mongooses, some whales and seals. [Mueller and Meyer, 1985]

 

Physiology

Why do women have better verbal abilities?

Conservative/Operative specialization is also specialization on internal (inside the population) and external (with environment) relationships. Language and verbal abilities are important for internal communications.

— men have better visual-spatial abilities?

More developed spatial abilities of men are related to their more advanced, evolutionary later ipsilateral visual pathways providing stereoscopy.

— women have better sense of smell?

The sense of smell is decreasing.

Demography

Why do women usually live longer than men, but men are “champions” in the duration of life?

High birth- and death- rate of males and left-handed people under extreme conditions?

Excessive birth-rate of boys during wars ("phenomenon of war years"), in harems and textile cities?

Excessive birth-rate of girls in expeditions and port cities?

Negative feedback of sex ratio regulation

Teratology

Why some congenital anomalies are more frequently occur in boys while others—in girls?

— twice as much boys are born with one kidney, and 2.5-fold more girls—with three kidneys?

— congenital hip luxation is four times more frequent in girls, and the left side is the most
     frequently affected (60%)?

— patent ductus arteriosus, Lutembacher disease, and ostium secundum are more frequent in women?

— aortal stenosis, coarctation of aorta, and transpositions of the great arteries are more frequent in men?

 

Pathology

Why many diseases not related to reproductive functions or organs strike men and women differently?

— gout and ulcer are predominantly occur in man, but holecystitis, diabetes, varicose and arthritis — in females?

— tong, throat, esophagus, and stomach tumors occur more frequently in men, but thyroid and gull bladder ones — in females?

— atherosclerosis, cancer, coronary diseases, schizophrenia are predominantly occur in man?

— all “new” diseases, diseases of civilization and urbanization (atherosclerosis, cancer, coronary diseases,
     schizophrenia) are predominantly occur in man?

— men are more frequently damaged by immune deficit diseases (such as AIDS), while women—by autoimmune
     diseases (such as arthritis)?

Psychology

Why men are either very clever or really stupid?

High phenotypic variation of males.

— men have problems working on precision assembly lines (watches, electronics etc).

— do we have much more men in mathematics, science, music, composition, painting and book writing?

women rarely become inventors?

Men solve new tasks better, but imperfectly, while women — familiar ones, but perfectly.

Sociology

Why men are more vulnerable to all social vices (alcohol, tobacco, drugs and gambling), but they damage women more severely? For example there are 3 times more men-alcoholics, but women die 3 times more frequently from alcoholic cirrhosis.

Many men already have enzymes necessary to utilize calories from ethanol.

 Anthropology

Four types of male skulls and only one type of female skulls in Bashkir population.

Why dermatoglyphics of Bulgarian males is similar to Turkish type, while that of Bulgarian females—to Lithuanian type?

 

Laterality

Why apes reach for and grasp food with the left hand, but manipulate (open bolts, turn nuts) with the right hand? [MacNeilage, 1987; Beck, Barton, 1972; Ettlinger, 1961; Ettlinger, Moffett, 1964; Milner, 1969; Gautrin, 1970; Tokuda, 1957, 1963, 1969]

— grasping reflex of newborns is stronger on the left?

— right-handedness on “instrumental” functions is higher than on “noninstrumental”?

Old and new characters

— siamangs, chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas prefer the right foot for beginning terrestrial movement? [MacNeilage, 1987]

— ovulation in dolphins occurs predominantly on the left ovary?

— only the left nostril of sperm whale is primarily associated with breathing?

Right organs usually acquire new functions, while left organs keep the old ones.

— backs of penguin chicks blacken, and of beluga calves (Huso huso) brighten from the head?

Effect of ‘nose-tail’ asymmetry

— there are 4-8 times more boys among the left handers, stutterers, cross-eyed, and dyslexics (deviations
     associated with brain asymmetry)? []

— are the proportions of left-handed individuals higher among both geniuses and imbeciles?

— righthandedness and leftfootedness of Homo Sapiens?

— handedness is correlated with sex (for each woman there is among the ambidextrous about 0.5 men,
     among right-handers about 0.9 men, and among left-handers about 5.0 men)? [Briden, 1987]

at ages from 6 to 12 years the right femur is larger, and after 13 — the left one? [G. von Bonin, 1962]

 

— the heart is displaced to the left?

During lung development, the right lung appeared first and pushed centrally positioned heart to the left. When after many generations the left lung appeared, the place was already taken. Therefore the right lung has three lobes, while the left one only two.

Brain:

— men have more asymmetric brain? [McGlone, 1980]

The evolution of the brain goes from symmetry to asymmetry.

— the right cortex is “closer” to subcortex as a whole than the left one? [W.Heller, 1993].

The right hemisphere and subcortex are conservative subsystems, the left hemisphere and cortex the operative ones. Since the lateral differentiation is older than the cortical one, the brain subsystems form the following sequence: right subcortex - left subcortex - right cortex - left cortex. Consequently, from the information viewpoint the right cortex is “closer” to subcortex as a whole than the left one. The right sub cortex is the most “ancient” and “removed from environment” subsystem, the left cortex is the most “new” and “closest to the environment” one.

— high prevalence of aphasia and apraxia in women with lesions of the anterior brain and in men with lesions of the posterior brain? [Kimura, 1992].

Can be explained by the superposition of two dimorphisms (gradients), sexual and frontal-occipital: in the male sex and the anterior brain, all changes appear earlier than in the female sex and the posterior brain, respectively.

Vision:

— the left eye is more sensitive to simple signals (flash of light), and right eye—to complex ones (words, numbers)? [Klimenko, 1984]

Old and new stimuli

— the left eye is more sensitive to common words, and right eye—to brand names? []

Old and new words

Hearing:

— the left ear is more sensitive to nature sounds (noise of rain and sea, barking of the dog, cough), and right ear—to semantic ones (words, numbers)? [Blumstein et al, 1975; Curry, 1967; Harris, 1978]

The first are older than the second

— for dichotic vocal signals the right ear was preferred at first, after a week, the left ear? [Springer, Deutch, 1983]

 

Sense of touch:

— the left hand better recognizes familiar objects, while right hand— unknown ones? [Witelson, 1985; Klimenko, 1984]

Old and new objects

Why do some diseases more often affect left organs, and others—the right organs?

— varicose strikes women more frequently and from the left side, and gout—males and from the right side?

 

Copyright 2005-2009 S. Geodakyan. All rights reserved.

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