a fraction of the materials and publications available are
First publication devoted to problems of sex differentiation
has appeared in 1965 in popular scientific magazine Nauka I
Zizn ("Science and Life"). This magazine had hundreds of
thousands of subscribers, therefore this publication is
still widely remembered. Since then more than 150 articles
were published covering different aspects of sex related
questions—longevity, differentiation of a brain and hands,
sex chromosomes, mechanisms of sex ratio regulation at
plants and animals, heart diseases and other illnesses.
V. Geodakian made presentations on many Russian and
international congresses, conferences and symposiums,
lectured hundreds of students. Two conferences were devoted
to the theory exclusively (Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1990,
Newspaper and magazine articles:
The theory was covered in numerous
newspaper and magazine articles (see Bibliography).
Two interviews on Russian National Television.
Article from “Priroda” (English translation). Study programs
and materials for students. Official Web site (2006).
Google.com search on:
V. Geodakian, V. Geodakyan, or V. Geodakjan
Yandex.ru search on:
In the US:
V. Geodakian made3 presentations at the congress and gave 2
interviews that were printed by L. Rahlis in “Russia House”,
a newspaper for the Russian community in Atlanta, GA (1998).
1965 article printed (1972).
presentation at 12th ICG (1968).
Textbooks and study
theory was included in the textbooks (G. S. Vasiltchenko,
1977, 2005; S. K. Nartova-Boshaver 2003,
N. Ikonnikova, 1999)
and also is included in study programs of some Russian
(Physical-Technical College, Moscow College of Physical
Engineers, Russian Humanitarian State University) and
foreign (Kharkov national university (Ukraine), Tel-Aviv
University) colleges and universities.
Notability, recognition in
the scientific community,
citations, works of other scientists
Negative feedback hypothesis. To
confirm negative feedback hypothesis the experiments were
conducted by V. Kosobutsky (1969, 1979), Bileva, Luchnikova,
Petrova (1972), and B. Kasatkin.
S. Geodakyan (1985) reviewed data
published by other scientists including such classical works
as papers of Correns on plants and Hertwig on frogs. The
negative feedback concept was confirmed in direct
experiments on at least 3 species: 1 plant and 2 animal
ones. It was also confirmed that many plant, and animal
species including humans have necessary mechanisms for
feedback existence (4 plant species from 3 families, and 16
animal species from 11 families).
Later V. Iskrin (2001,2003) introduced
some mathematical parameters to describe sex ratio effects
and extended the hypothesis to explain sex ratio deviations
under catastrophic conditions. In his reasoning he accepts
most of the statements of the Geodakyan theory.
Boris D. Lubachevsky
was promoting the theory since 1990s. He translated
Theory of Sex (article from “Priroda” into English
and made it available on the Internet. He
later published a review of Iskrin’s additions to the
negative feedback concept.
Advantages of sexual reproduction: Hypothesis of more efficient selection. “…was first
noted by Geodakyan (1965, p. 106) who concluded that ‘the
advantages of sexual reproduction with two different sexes
are not limited to genetic heterogeneity of the progeny.’”
A. S. Kondrashov (1993, p. 374)
“Phylogenetic rule of
Smirnov (1968) (specialist on lower Crustacean) conducted
studies that confirmed the “phylogenetic rule of sexual
dimorphism” (173 species of lower Crustacean).
Theory was used to predict nature of congenital heart
defects. Data collected by surgeon-cardiologist A. Sherman
(32,000 cases) confirmed the predicted relationship and
allowed to propose sex of a patient as a diagnostic symptom.
Later P. M. Raevski and A. L. Sherman
(1976) extended the analysis on malignant tumors. They have
shown, that phylogenetically younger organs or systems of
organs have higher values of sexual dimorphism (higher
incidence of tumors in males) compare to old ones. For
example, such phylogenetically young formations as lungs,
larynx, tong and esophagus had the greatest sexual
dimorphism values. On the contrary, negative sexual
dimorphism values were characteristic for the reproductive
system and thyroid glands. Organs and tissues that are in
contact with environment have higher values of sexual
dimorphism. Based on “phylogenetic rule of sexual
dimorphism” authors have predicted, that lung cancer
incidents will grow, while stomach cancer will decrease,
because the sexual dimorphism is increasing in the first
case, and decreasing in the second case.
Theory was used and discussed in
articles and books of several Russian psychologists:
B. Bagrunov attempted to apply theory
of sex to professional development, education, and sport.
I. S. Kon
S. K. Nartova-Boshaver (2003)
Asmolov A.G. Vygotsky today: on the verge of
non-classical psychology. Nova Science Publishers, 1998,
Education. Differences between
sexes in cognition and learning are long known. Scientists
and education specialists still argue which way of learning
is the best – separate or mixed class arrangement. Theory
provides basis and explanation of psychological differences
and tells how to organize study programs. Recent attempts to
go back to separate education showed encouraging results (M.
Gurian in the US).
I.S. Kon and later Kleyn included
Geodakian concept in the explanation of homosexuality.
Gerontology. L. Gavrilov and N.
Gavrilova (both gerontologists) have analyzed parts of
Geodakyan theory dealing with longevity, and differential
mortality of sexes. They argue that high mortality of males
(one of the theory’s building blocks) is not always the case
and each species may have specific factors affecting
longevity and difference between sexes. [Theory uses a vast
majority of existing facts from many branches of science
(biology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, etc) for many
species and all levels of organization (from cells to organs
They claim that contrary to theory’s
prediction women are champions in longevity [Гаврилов,
1985] and that mortality among women is decreasing more
rapidly compare to men [Gavrilov, Nosov, 1985].
Brain asymmetry. In 1995 Simonov P. V. and
Rusalova M. N. discovered that active centers of the reflexes
move from front of the left hemisphere to the front of the
right hemisphere and to the back of the right hemisphere.
They write: “Geodakian law is equally valid for phylo- and
D. Kimura (1992) discovered that in
women aphasia and apraxia more often result from
patholological changes of the anterior parts of the left
hemisphere, while in men, they result from pathologies of
its posterior part. She was not able to explain why.
Vasiltshenko G. S. (Ed.) (1977)
General sexopathology. Physicians guide. Moscow,
Medicine 488 p.
Vasiltshenko G. S. (2005) General sexopathology.
Physicians guide. Moscow, Medicine 2nd
edition 512 p. ISBN
Nartova-Boschaver S. K. (2003) Differential
psychology: Textbook. Moscow. Flinta Moscow
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
Department of Molecular and Biological Physics. Lectures for
the 1st grade “Biology basics”. Lecture #24
“Evolutionary Theory of Sex. Biotechnology. Immunology.
Signal transmission in the body.”
Natalia Nesterova Moscow Education Academy. <
Faculty of practical psychology. Special courses: “The
Evolutionary Theory of Sex” (3rd
course 36 h.).
“The Evolutionary Theory of Brain Asymmetry” (5th
course 32 h.).
Author: V.A. Geodakian.
Tomsk State University.
Faculty of Radiophysics.
Department of Quantum Electronics and Photonics. Course:
«Optical synergetics» Author: Prof. B.N. Pojzner (PhD)
(Geodakian’s principle of Conjugated Subsystems.
Sexual dimorphism and gender aspects of behavior from the
V.A. Geodakian’s principle point of view.)
Kharkov National University
1. Faculty of psychology. Department of general
psychology. E.F. Ivanova. Subject “Differential psychology”.
Cycle of lectures “Gender studies in psychology” Lecture
#11. Studies of gender differences in brain organization and
cognition. [from 2006]
2. Kharkov Center of Gender Studies.
Author: Lutsenko E.A. Subject “Gender Socialization”.
Lecture N 3. “Concepts of sexual differentiation” (2nd
L.A. Gavrilov and N.S. Gavrilova “Biology of
the life span.” Chapter 5.4. Analysis of sex differences in
Geodakyan V. A., Sherman A. L. (1970).
“Eksperimental’naja hirurgija i anesteziologija
(Experimental surgery and anesthesiology) ” 32 N
Geodakyan V. A., Sherman A. L. (1971). Svjaz'
vrozdennych anomalij razvitija s polom (Relation of
congenital anomalies with the development of sex). “Zh. Obsh.
Biol.” 32 N 4, 417–424.
Gordon A. (2002) Evolutionary theory of sex. “Program
«00:30»” NTV, June 06.
Gordon A. (2002) Evolutionary theory of sex-2.
“Program «00:30»” NTV, Apr 15.
Gordon A. (2003) Theory of brain asymmetry. “Program
«00:30»” NTV, Dec 09.
E. P. Ilyin Differential Psychophysiology of man and
woman. Ch. 1 Biological aspects of sex differentiation. 1.2
Biological goal of two sexes existence in nature.
V. (2001) “Dialektika polov”
V. (2003) Catastrophisheskaja polovaja
proportsija (Catastrophic sex ratio) Nauka I Zizn ("Science
Kleyn Ch. V. Roots of homosexuality:
Biological basis. 9. Malfunction of imprinting and Adam’s
Kon I. S.
Kondrashov A.S. Classification of Hypotheses
on the Advantage of Amphimixis. J. of Heredity, 1993, 84,
B. D. Lubachevsky (2007) Theory of sexes by Geodakian
as it is advanced by Iskrin.
Raevski P. M.,
Sherman A. L. (1976). Significance of
sex in epidemiology of cancer (systemic-evolutionary
approach). In: Mathematical treatment of
medical-biological information. Moscow, Nauka, p.
Rahlis L. (1998) Why God created Adam and Eve? Russia
House (Atlanta, GA), September N 9 (68), 4.
Rahlis L. (1999) Supplementing each other. Russia
House (Atlanta, GA), February N 2 (73) 5.
Simonov P.V. e.a. (1995) Zurn. Vishej nervnoj
dejatelnosti. (J. of
High Nervous Activity), v. 45, 1, p. 13-17.