Theory of Asynchronous Evolution

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The Principle of Asynchronous Evolution

All biological theories especially classical genetics and Darwinism silently assume the idea of synchronous evolution. This approach is suitable for the description of evolution of unitary systems. However, these theories can not explain behavior of binary systems same as you can not solve three-dimensional problem within a plane.

Binary systems have two subsystems (or forms) of relatively homogeneous elements. In the case of population they are male and female sexes. Evolution is a process of changing and involves time. There are two distinct scales of time relative to species development—Ontogeny (the development of an individual from egg to adult) and Phylogeny (the evolutionary history or genealogy of a species). During Ontogeny egg, fetus, infant, child and adult male are different phases of development of a male subsystem. Most evolutionary changes occur during long periods of time (Phylogeny time scale) and subsystems itself can be viewed as phases rather then two different static forms. [The similar situation was in astronomy until it was discovered that white dwarfs and red giants are two phases of star development]

Theory of Asynchronous Evolution introduces a principle of Conjugated Subsystems:

any SYSTEM adaptiNG TO A variable environment dividES into two conjugated SUBSYSTEMS, specialized according to conservative and operative trends of evolution, WHICH increases the SYSTEM stability as a whole.

When a system is divided into subsystems, then a major question is about the sequence of arrival of the controlling information from the environment to these subsystems. Initially when the system was uniform, the general stream of information was from the Environment to the System: ES. After the appearance of the connected subsystems the information flow becomes: Environment → Operative → Conservative Subsystem, E OS CS. This means that the new subsystem is always operative and arises between a conservative subsystem and environment.

 

The subsystems change at a different speed. Operative subsystem starts the change, verifies and selects the useful traits and then passes them to conservative subsystem. This delay creates a difference between the two subsystems both in morphological (dimorphism) and time (dichronism) aspects (Figure 1, 2.).

 

Figure 1. On “system—environment” axis system is divided onto “stable nucleus” and “labile shell”.

 

Figure 2. On time axis operative subsystem can be considered
          as “avant-garde” compare to conservative one.

 

The differentiation of a population into sexes, a bilateral organism into the left and right halves, a forebrain into hemispheres, a genome into autosomes and sex chromosomes, a human society into righthanded and lefthanded individuals can all be considered as conservative and operative specializations (Table). They ensure an economic informational interaction of the adaptive system with the environment and the efficient evolution of this system. All of these specializations resulted from asynchronous evolution; i.e., the operative subsystems (the male sex, the right half of the body, the left hemisphere, gonosomes, and lefthanded individuals) change earlier than the respective conservative subsystems. These dichronisms determine the sexual (SD), lateral, chromosomal, and mental dimorphisms, ensuring an evolutionary “distance” between the subsystems, which is necessary for searching and testing innovations.

 

Based on this innovative approach V. Geodakyan created the whole set of theories related to different levels of organization from chromosomes to populations.

 

New view on evolutionary role of sex leads to a proper understanding of all sex-associated derivatives: sex ratio, sex variation (SV), sexual dimorphism (SD), sex chromosomes (SC), sex hormones (SH), psychological differences associated with sex, and all other sex-related phenomena. Theory can answer many questions which Darwin's theory of sexual selection failed to explain.

 

Table.   Examples of conjugated subsystems.

System

Subsystems

Conservative

Operative

Nucleoprotein DNA (RNA) Protein
Gene (in the organism) Dominant (A) Recessive (a)
Gene (in population) Heterozigote (Aa) Homozigotye (AA, aa)
Genome Autosomes Sex chromosomes
Cell Nucleus Cytoplasm
Brain (down—up) Subcore Core
Brain (back—front) Occipital lobe Frontal lobe
Brain (right—left) Right hemisphere Left hemisphere
Organism (morphology) Left side Right side
Organism (genetics) Gametes Somatic cells
Organism (physiology) Estrogens Androgenes
Organism Genotype Phenotype
Population Female sex Male sex
Society Righthanded individuals Lefthanded individuals

 

Continue:

Sex Chromosomes: What Are They For?

The Evolutionary Theory of Sex

Evolutionary Theories of Asymmetrization of Organisms, Brain and Body

 

 

Copyright 2005-2009 S. Geodakyan. All rights reserved.

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