Theory of Asynchronous Evolution

Home

IntroductionChromosomesTheory of Sex | Asymmetry | Questions | FAQ | Articles | Glossary | Site Map |

 

Facts (F), Explanations (E), Predictions (P) and Confirmations

Presented on this page are some known facts and their explanations. There are also predictions that can be derived from the theory. Predictions are the most important part of any scientific theory. The more unusual the prediction can be made, the more value and credibility the theory gains. For example, Intelligent Design “theory” explains nothing and predicts nothing; therefore it can not be considered a scientific theory.

The theory also should always be wider than the treated phenomenon (“as a blanket-is better to be longer than legs”). Many theories fail this criterion.

Darwin’s sexual selection theory tried to explain sexual dimorphism as a result of sexual selection. This was a methodological mistake: the wide phenomenon cannot be treated as a consequence of the narrow mechanism. more…

Many social theories also fall into this category. They attempt to explain brain asymmetry, handedness, psychological sex differences and professional preferences from “human” point of view and therefore have difficulties explaining the same phenomena in animals.

The Evolutionary Theory of Sex

  1.  Theory predicts that three main parameters of the dioecious population—sex ratio, variation and sexual dimorphism—should decrease in stable environment and increase when conditions change.

  2. Large vertebrates whose evolution was accompanied by increased sizes as a rule should have males larger than females.

  3. As many insects and Arachnida got smaller during the evolution process, the small species should have larger females.
    Confirmations:
    The prediction was verified on a large group (173 species) of lower Crustaceaean.

  4. The selection features must be more dominant in males.
    Confirmations:
    The examples are numerous: with the meat producers such as pigs, sheep, cows, birds, the males grow faster, gain weight and provide better meat than females, the stallions are better than mares in sporting and physical labor features, the fine-fleeced rams provide 1.5–2 times more fleece what the sheep produce, among the fur producers males have better fur than females, the male silkworm produces 20% more silk, etc.

  5. Theory predicts the direction of reciprocal effects on evolving traits. On divergent parental characters must have the qualities of the father and on convergent properties – those of mother.

  6. Human ancestors had laterally located eyes contralaterally connected with the brain. For the development of stereoscopy the eyes moved to the frontal side and ipsilateral pathways appeared. Consequently, the visual nerve of men ought to contain more ipsilateral fibers than that of women. In Ontogeny ipsilateral pathways and spatial abilities of humans must be improved.

  7. In humans atrophy of the olfactory nerve develops with age. Consequently, its atrophy must proceed more intensively in men than women. In Phylogeny olfaction gets poorer.

  8. The relative dimensions of corpus callosum in human Ontogeny markedly increases. It means that it must be larger in men and grows in Phylogeny.

  9. The ratio between the lengths of right and 1eft temporal planes is higher in women. Hence, both in phylo- and Ontogeny it must decrease.
    Confirmation:
    In infants this ratio is 0.65 and in adults— 0.55.

  10.  Theory predicts maximal differences in the last evolutionary acquisitions of a human being. These characters include abstract thinking, creative skills, spatial imagination, and humor. They should be more pronounced among men.
    Confirmations:
    Famous scientists, composers, artists, writers, comics and clowns are mostly men. There are many women among performers, and actors.

  11. All “new” diseases, diseases of civilization and urbanization (atherosclerosis, cancer, coronary diseases, and schizophrenia) should strike predominantly males.

  12. Female congenital diseases of the heart and main vessels should carry the features preserved from the last embryonic stages of intra-uterine development, or have some attributes peculiar to a species, from low steps of evolutionary ladder (nearest past). The anatomic attributes determining male's congenital defects should not have precedents at phylogenetic predecessors of the humans or in the in the embryo. They are unsuccessful tests of the evolution process.
    Confirmations:
    The prediction was verified by analysis of approximately 32000 congenital malformations of the heart.

 

Sex Chromosomes

  1. Genes coding for sexual characters should be located in autosomes.

  2. Alien DNA or viruses are bound only by Y-chromosome-carrying sperm; therefore, transgenic animals must consist mostly of males.

  3. The condensation of the X chromosome in the female genome (Barr's body), irrespective of the gametic type, is interpreted as a barrier to the spreading of new, nontested information in females rather than gene-dose compensation.
    Traditional explanation of the role of Barr bodies as the dose compensation of X-chromosome genes is illogical. If this interpretation was true, then the Barr bodies would normally always be present in homogametic sex. However, in birds, as in mammals, the female chromosome is condensed, although birds possess only one X chromosome.

  4. The ecological Y chromosome must be closely associated with stress. This explains a number of previously known facts, e.g., the relatively larger size of the Y chromosome in some ethnic or social groups and the higher dispersal of this chromosome in rodents in zones of high seismic activity. In the latter case, it can be explained by stresses from frequent earthquakes rather than by high radiation levels or radon concentrations, as was proposed previously. A prediction may be made of the change in size and/or variation of the Y chromosome in regions of frequent or strong earthquakes, other calamities, and social stresses (genocide, wars, migrations, hunger, etc.). The same must happen in intensely selected animals and plants.

  5.  There exists a connection between the mitochondrial DNA and the Y-chromosome that serves as a gateway for (or a generator of) mutations induced and directed by the ecological differential rather than by spontaneous mutations.

 

Evolutionary theories of asymmetrization of organisms, brain and body

Brain

  1. Since the asymmetry of the brain is linked with evolution, then the greatest asymmetry, apart from humans, must be anticipated in intensively evolving species. These are chiefly selected (agricultural, domestic), synanthropic (able to be trained) animals, the left hemispheres of which undertake greater ecological stress.

  2. The right hemisphere control of intrauterine development (S.F. Walker, 1980). [F]
    In the embryo there are mostly old (biological) functions and not yet new (socio-cultural) functions. [E]

  3. The right hemisphere as analogous to female sex should be more stable than left hemisphere.

Organs of sense

  1. Sense of smell: Left nostril is narrower and more sensitive then right one [F].
    In humans sense of smell undergoes reduction. [E]

Hands

  1. At ages 6 to 12 years the right femur is larger, and at 13 to 20 the left (Bonin, 1962). When the ancestors of human beings converted to walking upright, a new center of control arose in the left hemisphere, causing right-footedness. After the complete assimilation of the function its center of control transferred to the right hemisphere, and rightfootedness changed to leftfootedness. Therefore in accordance with the rule of recapitulation, in ontogeny also rightfootedness changed to leftfootedness. This paradoxical fact can be explained in no other way.

  2. According to new theory handedness in Phylogeny was changed the following way: ambidexterity → right-handedness → left-handedness. Since male sex is avant-garde, it’s ratio in the array should increase.
    Confirmations:
    Archaeological data was collected on the making and use of tools, according to which in the Stone Age the right hands and left hands were used equally and in the Bronze Age, 2/3 were right-handers (now about 90%). We note that in all these various observations only the predicted theory of the direction of changes is established: bilateralness shifts from left hemisphere to right hemisphere. For each woman there is among the ambidextrous about 0.5 men, among right-handers about 0.9 men, and among left-handers about 5.0 men (Briden, 1987).

  3. Phylo- and ontogenetic conversions of ambidextrousness to righthandedness and to lefthandedness permit predictions of the existence or right-handed intermediate phases of all functions with the left hand and no analogous left-handed phase for functions made with the right hand.

  4. The significant trend away from anbidextrousness to preference for the right hand with practice in the accomplishment of tasks was observed in studies using different tests for tactile differentiation on new subjects—rhesus monkeys and marmosets [F].

  5. Simple reflexes are older than conditioned ones. Therefore simple reflexes should be stronger on the left side of the body, while conditioned—on the right side.
    Confirmations:
    The grasping reflex in newborns is more strongly developed in the left hand (with species righthandedness in people). The use of the palm is also stronger on the left side. However, involvement of fingers is stronger on the right side (MacNeilage, 1987).

  6. The proportions of lefthanded individuals are higher among both geniuses and imbeciles.

The Evolutionary Theory of Sex and Asymmetrization Combined

  1. Centers of control for functions of the dislocation age must be: in women bilateral, in men, in the left hemisphere; translocation age, in women, in the left hemisphere, in men, in the right hemisphere, and relocation age: in women, in the right hemisphere, in men, bilateral.

  2. Of 51 chimpanzees in 591 tests preference for the right hand was observed in 21 and all of these were males (MacNeilage, 1987). [F]

  3. According to new theory handedness in Phylogeny was changed the following way: ambidexterity → right-handedness → left-handedness. Since male sex is avant-garde, it’s ratio in the array should increase.
    Confirmations:
    Archaeological data was collected on the making and use of tools, according to which in the Stone Age the right hands and left hands were used equally and in the Bronze Age, 2/3 were right-handers (now about 90%). We note that in all these various observations only the predicted theory of the direction of changes is established: bilateralness shifts from left hemisphere to right hemisphere. For each woman there is among the ambidextrous about 0.5 men, among right-handers about 0.9 men, and among left-handers about 5.0 men (Briden, 1987).

  4. Lefthandedness is correlated with sex [F]

  5. There are 5 times more left-handed, stammering, cross-eyed and dyslectic among male infants [F]

  6. An increased prevalence of lefthandedness should be expected in all cases of ecological and psychological stress and discomfort, e.g., among interracial and interethnic hybrids; in populations living in highland, seismic, and ecologically unfavorable areas; after earthquakes, wars, genocide, famine, resettlements, and other natural or social stresses.  The same stress conditions increase the birth rate (and mortality rate) of males to a higher extent than those of women.

  7. Varicose strikes women more frequently and from the left side, and gout—males and from the right side. [F]

  8. At spaniels the longest ear should be the male’s right ear, and the shortest—the female’s left ear [P]

  9. Left side of the face should look close to mother, sisters and daughters, while right side should be more similar to father, brothers and sons [P]

 

 

Copyright 2005-2009 S. Geodakyan. All rights reserved.

Google

  www Site

html hit counter
html hit counter code